htop command not found centos 7

In a freshly installed CentOS or RHEL servers, we may get the following error while trying to use htop. For installing htop, we need epel repository. Following the below steps to install htop.

yum clean all

yum install epel-release

yum install htop

SELinux modes – Simple explanation

Everyone who uses linux might be familiar with SELinux. The full form of SELinux is Security-Enhanced Linux. It is a kernel level security module that enhances the access level security policies.

In this post I will be quickly explaining about the various modes in SELinux.

There are three modes in SELinux

  • Enforcing
  • Permissive
  • Disabled

In CentOS and RHEL systems , the SELinux configurations are controlled using the configuration file /etc/sysconfig/selinux.

The changes made to this file needs a system reboot. We can disable the SELinux permanently only with a system reboot. But we can set the SELinux into permissive mode without reboot. This can be easily performed by issuing a setenforce command. The details are explained in my another blog post.

Here we can set SELinux to any of the modes mentioned above.

In the Enforcing mode, SELinux is completely active and it will allow access only using the SELinux policies. User can configure the policies to enable access to their application.

In the Permissive mode, the SELinux will be monitoring and logging all the activities that would have been denied if it is in the enforcing state. The SELinux will not block any activities in this state.

In the Disabled mode, SELinux will be completely disabled.

dependency xml is not available

The error “dependency xml is not available” can be resolved by installing the following packages.

For CentOS/RHEL

yum install libxml2 libxml2-devel

For Ubuntu

apt-get install libxml2-dev

How to find the IP address of a linux server ?

To check the IP address of a Linux server, type the following command in the terminal/commandline.

ifconfig

The below command also will help in finding the ip address.

ip addr

CDH cluster installation failing in “distributing” stage- Failure due to stall on seeded torrent

I faced this issue while distributing the downloaded packages in cloudera manager.

The solution that worked for me is to add the IP Address – Hostname mapping in all the /etc/hosts files of all the cloudera manager server and agents

/etc/hosts

192.168.0.101   cdhdatanode1

How to extract a tar.gz file quickly in Linux

Recently I got a tar.gz file of around 30 GB and on extraction it will become approximately 4TB. I want to speed up the extraction as the normal extraction was taking approximately a day. I searched a lot and finally figured out a solution.

The solution was pigz. This is an advanced version of gzip. It uses multiple threads for reading, writing and checksum calculations. The extraction happens in a single thread. But overall performance is far better than the normal gzip.

The command to install pigz in CentOS or RHEL is given below. Ensure epel repository is enabled in your system

yum install pigz

The command to extract a tar.gz file using pigz is given below.

pigz -dc compressed.tar.gz | tar xf -

If you want to see the progress of the extraction process, you need to use Pipe Viewer (pv). PV (“Pipe Viewer”) is a tool for monitoring the progress of data through a pipeline. It can be inserted into any normal pipeline between two processes to give a visual indication of how quickly data is passing through, how long it has taken, how near to completion it is, and an estimate of how long it will be until completion.

Pipe viewer can be installed in CentOS or RHEL using the following command

yum install pv

Using pv, we can monitor the progress of the decompression process

pigz -dc compressed.tar.gz | pv | tar xf -

 

How to migrate docker images from one server to another without using a docker registry/repository ?

Copying docker image from one server to another server is an easy task. The following steps will explain you about this. Before getting into the actual steps, lets get the understanding of few terminologies.

What is a docker image ?

An image is an immutable master copy. We can correlate docker image with an ISO image of an operating system. Once we run this image, it will create a container. We can run any number of containers from the same image.

What is a docker container ?

Container is basically a running copy of the image with life. Alterations can be made on the container. Basically changes can be applied on top of the base image while running it as a container. A container can be called as a booted image.

Docker save, export and load commands

docker save will save a docker image to the disk. This saved file includes all the layers of images and the metadata required to chain these layers to rebuild the current image. So the docker save command will preserve the history of all the layers present in the current image. We can copy this saved file to another server to load the image and run containers.

The syntax is

docker save -o [filename] [imagename]:[version]

The above command will save the image into the given file name. You can also provide the complete path along with the file name.

The docker load command will load the image back from file into the system. To load this image from the file, use the following command.

docker load -i [saved image file name]

Docker export will create a snapshot of the container. Basically it will save the current state of the container as an image. It will not preserve the details of the layers present in the parent image of the container. This will save the container’s file system as a tar file. This command does not export the contents of volumes associated with the container.

Docker save needs to be performed on a docker image and docker export is performed on a docker container.

To copy a docker image from one host to another host in a single shot, the following command will help. For executing this command, the bzip2 package needs to be installed in your unix operating system

docker save [image]:[version] | bzip2 | ssh username@hostname 'bunzip2 | docker load'

Note: For installing bzip2 in centos/rhel, use the following command

yum install bzip2

For ubuntu

apt-get install bzip2

I hope this article helped you. 🙂

How to find and kill a process locking a particular port in Linux?

Sometimes because of some issue or bug, our application may stop working, but the port will be locked. This kind of issue is very common with MySQL server, Elasticsearch, WebServices, Tomcat etc. In such scenarios, we have to find the zombie process and kill it to free up the locked port.

How to find the process that locks the port?

Use the following command

netstat -tulpn | grep <port>

This output of this command will contain the process id. Now we just need to kill the process.

Verify the process

Before killing the process, figure out what process it is and ensure we are not killing any required processes.

ps -aux | grep <process id>

The output of the above command will give the details of the process.

How to Kill a process ?

After confirming the details, you can kill the process

kill -9 <process id>

Now verify whether the port is still locked or not by executing the netstat command again