Bubble chart using Python

Bubble chart is one of the powerful and useful chart for representing data with three or four dimensions.

The position of the bubble is determined by the x & y axis values. These are the first two properties.

The size of the bubble can be controlled by the third property.

The colour of the bubble can be controlled by the fourth property.

A Sample program to create a bubble chart using the python library matplotlib is given below.

import matplotlib.pyplot as plot
import numpy as npy

# create some dummy data using numpy random function.
# Bubble charts are used to represent data with three or four dimensions.
# X axis can represent one property, Y can represent another property,
# The bubble size can represent another properly, the color of the bubble can represent another property.

x = npy.random.rand(50)
y = npy.random.rand(50)
z = npy.random.rand(50)
colors = npy.random.rand(50)
# use the scatter function
plot.scatter(x, y, s=z * 1000, c=colors)

Here we are generating some random data using numpy and plotting the bubble chart using matplotlib.

A sample output is given below.


Bubble Chart using Python


Production deployment of a Python Web Service (Flask / Tornado Application)

Python Flask and Tornado are two of the most popular frameworks in python for developing RESTful services.

Do you know how to develop and deploy a production grade python application. ?

A sample python flask service is given below. This is a sample flask web service. This has only one endpoint (/requestme) at is a GET method. (sample_flask.py). I am not focusing on the coding standards. My goal is to show you the production implementation of a python application.

We can run this program in the command line by executing the following command.

> python sample_flask.py

The service will be up and running in port 9090. You will be able to make requests to the application by using the URL http://ipaddress:9090/requestme.

How many requests will this python web service can handle ? 

10 or 20 or 100 ?? … Any guess ??

Definitely this is not going to handle too many requests. This is good for development trials and experimental purpose. But we cannot deploy something like this in production environment.

How to scale python applications  ?

Refer to the below diagram. The diagram has multiple instances of flask applications with Gunicorn WSGI proxied and load balanced through Nginx web server.


Production Deployment of Python Flask Application

Sample Nginx configuration that implements the reverse proxy and load balancing is given below. 

This is a sample configuration and this does not have the advanced parameters.

server {
listen 80;
server_name myserverdomain

location / {
proxy_pass http://upstream_backend/requestme;

upstream backend {
server gunicornapplication1:8080;
server gunicornapplication2:8080;



The upstream section routes the requests to the two gunicorn backends and the requests are routed in round robin manner. We can add as many backend servers as we need based on the load.

How to run the python applications with gunicorn ?

First lets install gunicorn

> pip install gunicorn

Now it is simple, run the following command.

> gunicorn -w 4 app:app

Now the our application will run with 4 workers. Each worker is a separate process and will be able to handle requests. The gunicorn will take care of handling the requests between each of the workers.

We can start multiple gunicorn instances like this and keep it behind the nginx. This is the way to scale our python applications.

Hope this helps 🙂 

How to convert a csv file to json file ?

Sometimes we may get dataset in csv format and need to be converted to json format.  We can achieve this conversion by multiple approaches. One of the approaches is detailed below. The following program helps you to convert csv file into multiline json file.  Based on your requirement, you can modify the field names and reuse this program.

The sample input is give below.



Output multiline json is given below.

{"EmpID": "1001", "FirstName": "Amal", "LastName": "Jose", "Salary": "100000"}
{"EmpID": "1002", "FirstName": "Edward", "LastName": "Joe", "Salary": "100001"}
{"EmpID": "1003", "FirstName": "Sabitha", "LastName": "Sunny", "Salary": "210000"}
{"EmpID": "1004", "FirstName": "John", "LastName": "P", "Salary": "50000"}
{"EmpID": "1005", "FirstName": "Mohammad", "LastName": "S", "Salary": "75000"}



Basic statistics using Python

Python comes with a built-in statistics module. This will help us to perform the statistical calculations very easily.

The following are the commonly used statistical functions.

Arithmetic Mean

Arithmetic mean is the average of a group of values. The mathematical equation is

Mean = Sum of group of values / Total number of values in the group

Mean vs Average: What’s the Difference?

Answer: Both are same. No difference

Suppose we have a list of values as shown below.

values = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]

For calculating the mean, without using any built-in function, we have to use the following snippet of the code

values = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]
sum = 0
for value in values:
    sum += value

mean = sum/len(values)
print("Sum -->:", sum)
print("Total Count-->:", len(values))
print("Arithmetic Mean-->:", mean)

The above program involves multiple steps. Instead of writing the entire logic, we can easily calculate the mean using the following code snippet

import statistics
values = [1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8]
print("Arithmetic Mean--> ", statistics.mean(values))

Arithmetic Mode

Arithmetic mode refers to the most frequently occurred value in a data set. Mode can be calculated very easily using the statistics.mode() function

import statistics
values = [1,2,2,2,2,2,2,1,2,3,4,5,2,3,4,5,6,66,6,6,6,6]

Arithmetic Median

Median is basically the mid value in the numerical data set. The median is calculated by ordering the numerical data set from lowest to highest and finding the number in the exact middle. If the count of total numbers in the group is an odd number, the median will be the number which is in the exact middle of the ordered list. If the count of total numbers is an even number, then the median will be the mean of the numbers that reside in the middle of the ordered list.

This can be simply calculated by the statistics.median() function.

import statistics
values = [21,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,24,29,50]
print("Arithmetic Median--> ", statistics.median(values))


Functions as Objects in Python

Python is very powerful. It is easy to learn. Applications can be developed very quickly using python because of the simplicity.

Everything in python is an object. This includes functions also. Are you aware of the following features of functions in python. I was not aware during my initial few years.

  • Functions can be the elements inside various data structures like lists, dictionaries etc.

Few examples

Function as argument to another function

A Sample program in python to explain the implementation of using function as an argument of another function is given below.

Functions as elements within data structures like list or dict()

A simple implementation of passing list of functions as argument to another function is shared below.

I hope this will help someone. 🙂


Sample program to send email using Send Grid

A sample program to send email to multiple users using Send Grid is attached below. The user emails can be provided in the list.


The to_email specifies the recipients. The from_email specifies the sender. You can provide the recipient details either as a list of emails addresses or a list of tuples containing email address and the label.

That means

to_emails = ['receiver01@mail.com', 'receiver02@mail.com', 'receiver03@mail.com']


to_emails = [('receiver01@mail.com', 'Receiver 02'), ('receiver02@mail.com', 'Receiver 02'), ('receiver03@mail.com', 'Receiver 03')]


Also in the from_email if you are simply passing the email address, the recepient will receive an email with the sender name as the name in the email address. If you want proper labels in the email, provide the details in a tuple.

from_email=('amal@gmail.com', 'Amal G Jose')

You have to grab the token from the SendGridto get this email service enabled.